CAL Bibliography for Interf


CAL BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH

Böhl, E., , De Aramaismis Libri Koheleth, . Erlangae: T. Blaesing, 1860. Pp. . Interf

Selle, F., , De Aramaismis Libri Ezechielis, . Halle (Saale): Formis Kaemmererianis, 1890. Pp. . Interf

Müller, F., "Die semitischen Elemente der Pahlawi-Sprache." SKAWW 136/10 (1897): 1–12. Interf

Krauss, S., Griechische und lateinische Lehnwörter im Talmud, Midrasch und Targum. . Berlin: , 1898-99. Vocab Loanwords Interf

Bauer, H., "àœberreste der kananäischen Unterschicht in den aramäischen Sprachen." OLZ 29 (1926): 801–3. Interf

Benveniste, E., "Termes et noms achémenides en araméen." JA 225 (1934): 177–93. Interf Elephantine

Leibovitch, J., "Quelques egyptianismes contenus dans les textes araméens d'à‰gypte." BlE 18 (1935-36): 19–29. Interf Elephantine

Gray, L.H., "Review of Old Persian Grammar, by R. G. Kent." American Journal of Philology 73 (1951): 325–28. Interf

Altheim, F. and Stiehl, Ruth, "Pahlawīk und Pārsīk." ParPass 8 (1953): 307–17 + 3 pls.. Interf

Benveniste, E., "Eléments perses en araméen d'à‰gypte." JA 242 (1954): 297–310. Interf Elephantine

Couroyer, B., "Termes égyptiens dans les papyri araméens du Musée de Brooklyn." RB 61 (1954): 554–59. Interf Elephantine

Menasce, J. de, "Mots d'emprunt et noms propres iraniens dans les nouveaux documents araméens." BO 11 (1954): 161–62. Interf Elephantine

Lesky, A., "Hypokrites," in Banti, L. et al., Studi in onore di Ugo Enrico Paoli, Pubblicazioni della Università degli studi di Firenze--Facoltà di lettere e filosofia ser. 4, vol. 1. Florence: Felice le Monnier, 1956. Pp. 469-76. Interf xnp N

Widengren, Geo, Iranisch-semitische Kulturbegegnung in parthischer Zeit. . Köln: , 1960. OS.As47 OS.Am4 Interf

Benveniste, E., Titres et noms propres en Iranien ancien. Travaux de l'Institut d'études iraniennes de l'Université de Paris . Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1966. OS.As1 Interf

Mashkur, M.J., Farhang-e huzvārešha-ye pahlavi. The Huzvārešh Dictionary. A Collection of (Aramaic) Ideograms in Pahlavi Writing. Entešārāt-e bonyād-e farhang-e Irān . Tehrān: Iranian Cultural Foundation, 1968. Interf

Degen, Rainer, "Review of Die lexicalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im altestamentlichen Hebräisch, by M. Wagner." Oriens 21-22 (1968-69): 386–91. Interf

Hurvitz, A., "Review of Die lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentlichen Hebräisch, by M. Wagner." IEJ 19 (1969): 182-83. Interf

Beyer, K., "Review of Die lexikalischen und grammatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentlichen Hebräisch, by M. Wagner." ZDMG 120 (1970): 195–98. Interf

Degen, Rainer, "Aramäischer Einfluss bei der Bildung der altpersischen Relativ Pronomina ?." Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 84 (1970): 202–6. Interf Pronoun

Harnack, D., "Parthische Titel, vornehmlich in den Inschriften aus Hatra," in Altheim, F. and Stiehl, Ruth, ed., Geschichte Mittelasiens im Altertum. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970. Pp. 492–549. OS Interf Vocab nwhdr N

Dresden, M.J., "Middle Iranian." Pp. 26–63 In Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa. Sebeok, T.A., ed. Paris: Mouton, 1971. Interf

Ebeling, E., Das aramäisch-mittelpersische Glossar Frahang-i-pahlavik im Lichte der assyriologischen Forschung. MAOG 14/1. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1972. Interf

Humbach, H., "Late Imperial Aramaic and Early Pahlavi." Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 30 (1972): 47–53. Interf

Hurvitz, A., "בין לשון ללשון: לתולדות לשון המקרא בימי בית שני," in , . Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1972. Interf

Tawil, H., "Idioms in Old Aramaic Royal Inscriptions in the Light of Akkadian." Ph.D. diss., Columbia Univ.. (1972): . OldAram Interf

Kaufman, Stephen A., "Akkadian and Babylonian Aramaic -- New Examples of Mutual Elucidation:2." Lešonénu 37 (1973): 102–4. Interf hwrd) N $bb N

Kaufman, Stephen A., The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic. Assyriological Studies 19. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1974. Interf Loanwords )b#2 N )b#4 N )bw#2 N )bwt N )gwr N )gwr#3 N )gn N )grh N )dwwt) N )dlt) N )wwr N )wlh N )wmn N )wrbt) N )kr N )lp N )md V )md#2 V )mty c )sh N )swp N )skwph N )pwt) N )pkl N )pr N )prqyd X )pt)#2 N )ptm X )r) N )rgwbl N )rdkl N )rx#3 N )ryx#2 N )ryt N )rch N )$y#2 N )$kr N )$$ N )$tym N )$tqd X )twn N )tly) N )tn#2 N bb N bwby N bwkn N bwcyn N bwry#2 N byb N byrh N byrnh N blw N blTy N b(l@T(m N b(l@pqt N b(ldbb N b(ldyn N bryt) N gyny) N gys N gl#5 N gnwn N g$wr N dbb N dn#2 N dp N d$ N hwrd) N hlk N wr$n N zbn V zbny N zwpryn N zyw N zyp N zky V zmn N zrnwq N x)ry N xbwl#2 N xwq N xzn N xlyc N xm#2 N xcb N xryc N Tm N T(m N kdm N kwk#4 N kwky N kwsp) N kwr#5 N kwtl N ky$ N kyth N kk N klb) N klk#2 N knwn N knt N kr#2 N krblh N k$d N lbh N lwbr A lxn N lyly#2 N mgn X mdr#3 N mwqr#2 N mwtn N mzl N mxr N my c mks#2 N mlw$ N mn) N mndh N mrwl N m$wny N m$kwn N m$kn#2 N mtwr N nbz#2 N nbzbh N ngw N ngr N ndbk N nwsx N nwr#2 N nzy N nksyn N nktm) N nl N nmrh N npxr N sblh#2 N sgn N sdyn#2 N swwr) N swkr N swsw N swt N sxr#5 N sTy A skn N snb b srys N ($h N p)q A pgwd N pwxr#2 N pxh N plg#6 N prys N prk#2 N ptwr N pty#3 N cbt#2 V cbt N qwp#4 N qrcyn N rby#3 N rpq V rp$ N rqh N rqy N r$y V $)r#2 N $bb N $bx#2 V $glh N $d N $dh#2 N $wly#2 N $wq N $w$byn N $wt N $yzb V $ycy V $kll V $kn#2 N $ld N $lh#2 N $ncy V $nt V $pt)#2 N $qwp N $qq N $r$y#2 V twbly N txwm N tyr A tl N tlym N tnwrh N tp N trbc N trgmn N trngl N

Greenfield, Jonas C., "Iranian Vocabulary in Early Aramaic." Acta Iranica 2 (1974): 245–46. Interf

Humbach, H., "Arameo-Iranian and Pahlavi." Pp. 237–43 In Commémoration Cyrus: Actes du Congrès de Shiraz 1971 et autres études rédigées à  l'occasion du 2500e anniversaire de la fondation de l'empire perse, Hommage Universel, II. , Leiden: Brill, 1974. Interf

Brock, Sebastian P., "Some Aspects of Greek Words in Syriac," in Dietrich, A., Synkretismus im syrisch-persischen Kulturgebiet, . Göttingend: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1975. Pp. 80-108. Syriac Interf Loanwords

Sokoloff, Michael, "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." Kiryat Sepher 51 (1976a): 464–73. Interf

Pardee, D., "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." JNES 36 (1977): 318–19. Interf

Röllig, W., "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." ZDMG 127 (1977): 453. Interf

Soden, W. von, "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." JSS 22 (1977): 81–86. Interf

Wiseman, D.J., "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." BSOAS 40 (1977): 144. Interf

Ehrman, A., "Jewish Aramaic in Old Romance?." JQR 69 (1979): 233–35. LJLA Interf

Nordio, M., Lessico dei logogrami in Medio-Persiano. Quaderni del seminario di iranistica dell'Università  di Venezia 12. Venice: La Tipografica, 1980. Interf

Bausani, A., "La scrittura pahlavica frutto di bilinguismo aramaico-iranico." VO 3 (1980): 269–76. Interf

Oelsner, J., "Review of The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, by S. A. Kaufman." OLZ 75 (1980): 535–37. Interf

Avinery, Iddo, "An example of the Influences of Hebrew on the Peshitta translation—The Status Constructus." Textus 9 (1981): 36–8. Peshitta Grammar Interf

Itō, G., "Aramaic Preposition B in Parthian (Pahlavica IV)." Orient 17 (1981): 59–66. Interf

Moreshet, M., "Polel / Hitpolel in Mishnaic Hebrew and Aramaic Dialects[Heb.]." Bar-Ilan 18-19 (1981): 248–69. Grammar Influences Interf

Hurvitz, A., A Linguistic Study of the Relationship between the Priestly Source and the Book of Ezekiel. Cahiers de la Rev. Bibl. vol. 20. Paris: Gabalda, 1982a. Interf

Lemosín, R., "Algunas observaciones preliminares en una reconsideración del problema del estudio de los ideogramas arameos en iraní medio." AO 2 (1984): 105–11. Interf

Fales, Frederick Mario, "Assiro e aramaico: Filologia e interferenza linguistica." Atti del sodalizio glottologico milanese 25 (1985): 21–30. Interf

Talshir, D., "Remnants of Hebrew in Samaritan Aramaic[Heb]," in Tal, Abraham and Florentin, M., ed., Proceedings of the First International Congress of the Société d'Etudes Samaritaines: Tel Aviv, April 11-13, 1988. Tel Aviv: Chaim Rosenberg School for Jewish Studies, Tel Aviv University, 1991. Pp. 1*–6*. Samar Interf

Davis, M.T. and Stuckenbruck, L.T., "Notes on Translation Phenomena in the Palmyrene Bilinguals," in Kapera, Zdzislaw J., ed., Intertestamental Essays in Honour of Jósef Tadeusz Milik, Qumranica Mogilanensia . Cracow: Enigma Press, 1992. Pp. 265–83. Palm Interf Vocab

Fassberg, S.E., "Hebraisms in the Aramaic Documents from Qumran," in Muraoka, Takamitsu, ed., Studies in Qumran Aramaic, Abr-NahrainSup . Louvain: Peeters, 1992. Pp. 48–69. Interf Grammar 1QapGen

Luke, K., "Persian Words in Syriac." Harp 5 (1992): 231–49. Vocab Syriac Interf

Arnold, Werner and Behnstedt, P., Arabisch-Aramäische Sprachbeziehungen imQalamÅ«n (Syrien): Eine dialektgeographische Untersuchung mit einer wirtschafts- und sozialgeographischen Einführung von Anton Escher. Semitica viva . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1993. Interf

Shaked, Shaul, "Items of Dress and Other Objects in Common Use: Iranian Loanwords in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic." Irano-Judaica 3 (1994): 106–115. Interf Lexicography Loanwords

Maraqten, Mohammed, "The Arabic Words in Palmyrene Inscriptions." Aram 7 (1995): 89–108. Interf

Skjærvø, P.O., "Aramaic in Iran." Aram 7 (1995): 283–318. Interf Ideograms

Tal, Abraham, "Languages in Contact: Hebrew and Aramaic in the Ancient Samaritan Community," in Crown, A.D. and Davey, L., ed., New Samaritan Studies of the Société d'études samaritaines III & IV, Studies in Judaica . Sydney: Mandelbaum Publishing, 1995. Pp. 577–86. LangGen Interf

Brock, Sebastian P., "Greek Words in Syriac: some General Features." Scipta classica Israelica 15 (1996): 251–62. Syriac Interf Loanwords

Blasberg, M., "Keilschrift in aramäischer Umwelt: Untersuchungen zur spätbabylonischen Orthographie." Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Cologne. (1997): . Interf

Freidman, S., "The Scholars’ Dictionary of Tannaitic Hebrew, Hefker/Hevker [Heb.]." Sidra 12 (1997): 113–27. Interf bqr V

Joosten, Jan, "Odes de Salomon 7,3a: observations sur un hellénisme dans le texte syriaque." ZNW 89 (1998): 134–35. Peshitta Interf

Brock, Sebastian P., From Ephrem to Romanos. Interactions Between Syriac and Greek in Late Antiquity. . Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999. Syriac Interf

Breuer, Y., "הרכיב העברי בארמית של התלמוד הבבלי." [The Hebrew Component in the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud] Leš 62 (1999): 23–80. JBA Interf

Brock, Sebastian P., "Greek Words In Ephrem and Narsai: A Comparative Sampling." Aram 11-12 (The Mandaeans, Antioch & Edessa & Cultural Interchange in the Arabian Peninsula) (1999-2000): 439–449. Interf Ephrem Narsai

Joosten, Jan, "Greek Words Shared by the Peshitta and Targums to the Pentateuch," in Greenberg, G. and Rapoport, A., eds., Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Texts, Michael Weitzman Memorial Volume. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001. Pp. 165–177. Targums Interf

Healey, John F., "Nabataeo-Arabic: Jaussen-Savignac nab. 17 and 18," in , Studies on Arabia in Honor of Professor G. Rex Smith, JSS sup. 14. Oxford: OUP, 2002. Pp. 81-90. Nabataean Interf

Kaufman, Stephen A., "Recent Contributions of Aramaic Studies to Biblical Hebrew Philology and the Exegesis of the Hebrew Bible," in Lemaire, André, Congress Volume Basel 2001, . Leiden: Brill, 2002. Pp. 43-54. OT Interf

Taylor, David G. K., "Bilingualism and Diglossia in Late Antique Syria and Mesopotamia," in Adams, J.N.//et al., Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Word, . Oxford: Oxford U.P., 2002. Pp. 298-331. Interf Syriac

Shaked, Shaul, "Between Iranian and Aramaic: Iranian Words Concerning Food in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, with Some Notes on the Aramaic Heterograms in Iranian." Irano-Judaica 5 (2003): 120–37. JBA Ideograms Influences Interf )brnym X Tbhqy N Tpq) N )mc N g$h N kwpt N pTrwz N b)dg N )nbg N wsq)#2 N

Brock, Sebastian P., "Greek and Latin Words in Palmyrene Inscriptions: A Comparison with Syriac," in Cussini, E., A Journey to Palmyra: Collected Essays to Remember Delbert R. Hillers, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 22. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005. Pp. 11–25. Interf )l#2 N )ndrT N )drwn N )rkwn N )sr#3 N )ksdr) N dynr N )pmlTw N

Ciancaglini, Claudia A., "Iranian loanwords in Syriac : Some problems in chronology and cultural history," in Cereti, C.G. et al., Orientalia Romana VIII : Middle Iranian lexicography : proceedings of the Conference held in Rome, 9-11 April 2001, . ROme: Ist. Italiano per l’Africa e l, 2005. Pp. 253-76. Loanwords Syriac Interf Influences

Gzella, H., "Die Palmyrener in der griechisch-römischen Welt. Kulturelle Begegnung im Spiegel des Sprachkontaktes." KLIO 87 (2005): 445–58. Interf Palm

Ciancaglini, Claudia A., "L'origine delle locuzioni verbali con ʿbd in siriaco," in Borbone, P.G. et al., Loquentes linguis : studi linguistici e orientali in onore di Fabrizio A. Pennacchietti, . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2006. Pp. 173084. Syriac Loanwords Interf (bd V

Joosten, Jan, "L'Agir humain devant Dieu. Remarques sur une tournure remarquable de la Septante." RB 113 (2006): 5–17. Interf

Tavernier, J., Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca. 550-330 B.C.): Lexicon of Old Iranian Proper Names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts. OLA 158. Leuven: Peeters, 2007. Lexicography Interf Loanwords Persep

Fales, Frederick Mario, "Multilingualism on Multiple Media in the Neo-Assyrian Period: A Review of the Evidence." State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 16 (2007): 95–122. Interf

Fales, Frederick Mario, "Between Archaeology and Linguistics: the Use of Aramaic Writing in Painted Characters on Clay Tablets of the 7th Century BC," in Moriggi, Marco, XII Incontro italiano di linguistica camito-semitica (afroasiatica), . : Soveria Mannelli, 2007. Pp. 129-160. Interf Dockets

Ciancaglini, Claudia A., Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Beiträge zur Iranistik 28. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert, 2008. Lexicography Loanwords Syriac Interf Influences

Elizur, Sh., "שילובם של יסודות ארמיים בפיוטי ארץ ישראל." [The Incorporation of Aramaic Elements in Ancient Palestinian Piyyutim] Lesh 70 (2008): 331-€“48. Interf LJLA Piyyut

Pat-El, N., "Traces of Aramaic Dialectal Variation in Late Biblical Hebrew." VT 58 (2008): 650-5. Interf dlmh X

Botta, Alejandro F., The Aramaic and Egyptian Legal Traditions at Elephantine. Library of Second Temple Studies 64. London and New York: T and T Clark, 2009. Elephantine Law Interf $lyT A rxq V mrxq N

Ciancaglini, Claudia A., "Calchi e paretimologie dotte nell'interferenza siro-iranica." [Calques and learned false etymologies in Syriac-Iranian interference] Incontri linguistici 33 (2010): 187–205. Syriac Interf Loanwords

Fales, Frederick Mario, "New Light on Assyro-Aramaic Interference: The Assur Ostracon," in Fales, Frederick Mario//Grassi, G.F., CAMSEMUD 2007 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH ITALIAN MEETING OF AFRO-ASIATIC LINGUISTICS Held in Udine, May 21st‒24th, 2007, History of the Ancient Near East / Monographs X. Padua: S.A.R.G.O.N. Editrice e Libreria, 2010. Pp. 189-204. AssOstr Interf klb#3 N

Joosten, Jan, "The Aramaic Background of the Seventy." BIOSCS 43 (2010): 1–22. Interf

Loopstra, J., "A Syriac Tract for the ‘Explanation' of Hebrew and Foreign Words," in Hovhanessian, V.S., The Old Testament as Authoritative Scripture in the Early Churches of the East, Bible in the Christian Orthodox Tradition 1. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2010. Pp. 57-64. Syriac Interf

Tezel, Sina, Arabic borrowings in Ṣūrayt/Ṭūrōyo within the framework of phonological correspondences : in comparison with other Semitic languages. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Semitica Upsaliensia 27. Uppsala: Univ. Uppsala, 2011. Interf Toroyo Phonology

Joosten, Jan, "Le dieu Iaô et le tréfonds araméen des Septante," in Loubet, M.//Pralon, D., EUKARPA. Études sur la Bible et ses exégètes en hommage à Gilles Dorival, . Paris: Cerf, 2011. Pp. 115-124. Interf LXX yhw d

Miller, F., "Greek and Syriac in Edessa: from Ephrem to Rabbula (CE 363-435)." Sec 4 (2011): 99–114. Syriac Interf

Streck, M.P., " Akkadian and Aramaic Language Contact," in S. Weninger et al., The Semitic Languages. An International Handbook, Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikations-wissenschaft36. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2011. Pp. 416-24. Influences Interf

Fraade, S.D., "Language Mix and Multilingualism in Ancient Palestine Literary and Inscriptional Evidence." Jewish Studies 48 (2012): 1*–40*. Interf JPA

Healey, John F., "Targum Proverbs and the Peshitta: Reflections on the Linguistic Environment," in Khan, G.A.//Lipton, Diana, Studies on the Texts and Versions of the Hebrew Bible in Honour of Robert Gordon, . Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012. Pp. 325-35. Peshitta TgProv Interf

Joosten, Jan, "A syntactic Aramaism in the Septuagint: ἰδού in temporal expressions." Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies 45 (2012): 39–45. Interf Septuagint

Koller, A., "Learning from the Tag: On a Persian Word for Crown in Jewish Aramaic," in Secunda, S.//Fine, S., Shoshannat Yaakov: Jewish and Iranian Studies in Honor of Yaakov Elman, . Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. 237-45. Interf tg N

Abudraham, O., "The Hebrew Component in the Aramaic Lexicon of the Targumim of the Five Scrolls [Heb.]." Leshonenu 75 (2013): 165–90; 403–23. LJLA Influences Interf Lexicography

Butts, A.M., "Greek μέν in Early Syriac." Hugoye 16.2 (2013): 211–23. Interf mn a

Ciancaglini, Claudia A. and Alfieri, Luca, "Iranian and Greek influence on the Syriac lexicon : the emergence of compound words." Incontri linguistici 36 (2013): 109–38. Syriac Vocabulary Interf Loanwords

Butts, A.M., "The use of Syriac Derivational Suffixes with Greek Loanwords." Or NS 83 (2014): 207-37. Loanwords Syriac Greek Interf

Yardeni, A., "A List of Arabic Words Appearing in Nabataean and Aramaic Legal Documents from the Judaean Desert." Scripta Classica Israelica 33 (2014): 301–24. Interf Nabataean JudeanDesertTexts

Brock, Sebastian P., "Charting the Hellenization of a Literary Culture: The Case of Syriac." Intellectual History of the Islamic World 3 (2015): 98–124. Syriac Interf

Contini, R. and Pagano, P., "Notes on Foreign Words in Hatran Aramaic," in Butts, A.M., Semitic Languages in Contact, Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics 82. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2015. Pp. 126-57. Hatran Interf

Butts, A.M., Language Change in the Wake of Empire: Syriac in its Greco-Roman Contaxt. Linguistic Studies in Ancient West Semitic 11. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016. Syriac Influences Interf lwt p dyn X )yt X ))r N )ndrynT N )rkwn N )sr#2 N

Gzella, H., "review of A. Butts, 2016." BiOr 73 (2016): 759–73. Syriac Influences Interf

Pagano, P., "Akkadian Lexical Influences in Syriac." Ph.D. Dissertation, Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”. (2016): . Interf Vocab Syriac

Byun, S.L., The Influence of Post-Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic on the Translator of Septuagint Isaiah. . London: T & T Clark, 2017. Interf

Sims-Williams, N., "Two Iranian loanwords in Syriac." BSOAS 80 (2017): 485–90. Interf ssgwn N synq N

Stadel, C. and Shemesh, M., "Greek Loanwords in Samaritan Aramaic." Aramaic Studies 16 (2018): 144–81. Samar Loanwords Interf )zbys A )y c nysws N bwl N bysh N dls V dms#3 N dymwsyn N Tws N TTh X kkln N kyr#2 N lpyc N mrcwp N nwmyq N nmy N nmy#2 V nms#2 N sbny N swsn N qsT N prn N qns V qrqws N rTyn) N


View Bibliographic Abbreviations

BACK

BACK to TOP